U.N. Resolutions and Maps
FOLLOWING ARE U.N. RESOLUTIONS FREQUENTLY CITED
Those that are too long to be included in their entirety can be accessed online by typing into Google "U.N. Resolution" followed by Resolution number requested.
Resolution 181: November 29, 1947 the United Nations General Assembly voted on the Partition Plan for Palestine, then under a British Mandate. The plan partitioned the territory into Jewish and Arab states, with the Greater Jerusalem area, encompassing Bethlehem, coming under international control. Refer to “1947 UN Partition Plan” map.
Resolution 194: December 11, 1948, the General Assembly passed this Resolution, which consists of 15 articles. Probably the most famous is Article 11, which calls for a return of Palestinian refugees. Other relevant Articles include reference to protection and free access to "Holy Places;” demilitarization and UN control over Jerusalem and free access to Jerusalem.
Resolution 242: November 22, 1967, the U.N. Security Council adopted this unanimously in the aftermath of the Six Day War. It calls for the "withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the War in exchange for an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict. The "territories" here refer to the West Bank, East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. Complete Resolution in packet. Refer to “Israel and the occupied territories, 1967” map.
Resolution 338: October 22, 1973. The Security Council calls for a Cease Fire and the implementation of Resolution 242. Complete Resolution in packet.
Resolution 1325: October 31, the Security Council unanimously adopted this resolution on women, peace and security. It addresses the unique and disproportionate impact of armed conflict on women and girls, and recognizes the contribution of women to conflict resolution, peacekeeping and peace building.
Refer to “Women Count at Last!” pamphlet and visit www.peacewomen.org to receive an E-newsletter.
The following article about U.N Resolution 3379 appeared in the December 1975 Peace and Freedom. It was written by Libby Frank, then Chairperson of the WILPF Middle East Committee. The resolution was passed by the U.N General Assembly November 10, 1975.
The UN Zionism Resolution
"The situation in the Middle East is extremely complex, yet the pressures on us are to react simplistically by condemnation or applause of any particular act.
"In the United States, the public furor over the resolution designating Zionism as a form of racism has hidden the fact that our government voted against two anti-racist, anti-apartheid resolutions that were placed before the General Assembly along with the anti-Zionist resolution. These resolutions were a part of the U.N.'s " Decade to Combat racism," begun in 1973. Hence, it seems to the rest of the world that the U.S. is voting for racism. The anti-U.N. forces in the U.S., vocal and active for years, now have a new excuse to weaken U.S. participation in that body.
"Why did the 72 countries vote for the resolution? Arab spokesmen in the U.N. consider Zionism the political expression and action of the State of Israel. However, Zionism has other meanings, positive and constructive, and is therefore held dear to many. Any characterization of it as racist is difficult for most Americans to understand or accept, including those who hope the State of Israel will change its policies. One questions why Israel was singled out when so many other states are unquestionably racist.
"The resolution has strengthened and unified the most intransigent forces in the U.S. and Israel. It perpetuates Zionism as a scapegoat in countries like Saudi Arabia, where Zionism is hardly the main problem facing the inhabitants.
"The main perception of Zionism as racist comes from the dispersion of the Palestinians from their homes and their not being allowed to return. Every time the Israeli government engages in an act of discrimination against Arabs, Palestinians, or even Oriental Israeli Jews, the perception of Zionism as racism is strengthened. The resolution is part of the Arab campaign to gain back occupied land by putting a spotlight n Israel.
"That perception is enhanced by the fact that the United States, while supporting apartheid, serves as Israel's protector. Many U.N. delegates voted as they did to demonstrate their independence from U.S. pressure and from. U.N. Representative Moynihan's insulting racist remarks to the Assembly.
"An over-all peace agreement and an end to all arms sales to the Middle East still must be campaigned for. The U.N. must still be supported as a workable arena for peaceful struggle over ideological differences. Its problems have been magnified and its accomplishments belittled by the United States, worried about its own declining influence in the world.
"The Decade Against Racism must still come alive in our communities. If the resolution results in stopping our efforts, we will have been divided and made easier to conquer."