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CEDAW Committee Recommends More Stringent Regulation Of Italy’s Arms Exports

8 August 2017

Following its review of Italy’s implementation of the CEDAW Convention on 4 July 2017, the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) has recommended more stringent regulation of Italy’s arms exports. In its Concluding Observations, adopted at its 67th Session, the Committee expressed concerns regarding Italy’s arms transfers, including to conflict zones, and about the absence of a specific mechanism for gender-based violence risk assessments of such exports. The CEDAW Committee echoed WILPF’s recommendations calling on Italy to harmonise its legislation on exports control in line with its international obligations, including under CEDAW and the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT), and to conduct rigorous and gendered impact assessments of arms transfers before granting export licenses.

WILPF submitted a report ahead of the review highlighting the spike in Italy’s arms transfers in recent years, the absence under Italian law of a specific mechanism to assess the impacts of arms sales on gender-based violence and the problematic role played by the controlling authority, which appears to be more of a “sponsor” of the Italian military industry. Arms transfers from Italy to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, countries that have been involved in the Yemen conflict, were provided as examples of transfers that undermine Italy’s international legal obligations and to illustrate the risks that they pose for the rights and safety of women. We also underlined the opacity of the data provided by the Italian government on arms transfers, which hinders effective parliamentary and civil society oversight over the government’s decisions and grounds to authorise arms transfers.

Elena Cason (WILPF International) and Annalisa Milano (WILPF Italy) at the Informal Lunch Briefing with the CEDAW Committee experts

On 3 July, prior to the Interactive Dialogue between the CEDAW Committee and the Italian delegation, WILPF participated in the Informal Meeting with NGOs and the Informal Lunch Briefing with Committee members. On these occasions, Annalisa Milani of WILPF Italy presented our concerns and recommendations.

During the Interactive Dialogue, the Committee asked the Italian delegation about its timeline for the adoption of laws and policies concerning Italy’s arms trade, particularly mechanisms to analyse the impact of the Government’s arms trade on women’s rights. The Committee also enquired about whether civil society would be included in the preparation of such legislation and whether Government decisions on licences for arms exports would be reviewed taking into account a gender perspective. The Committee also noted that arms exports were not covered in Italy’s National Action Plan to implement UN Security Council resolution 1325 (2000) on women and peace and security, and asked whether any other measures were envisaged to ensure that such exports were compliant with the resolution.

The Italian delegation responded that the granting of arms export licences is subject to strict controls in Italy under the law on export controls, No. 185/90, which aligns national law with international obligations. The Italian representative also explained that national control of arms exports is carried out in close cooperation with other members of the European Union in accordance with EU policy. However, no specific explanation was provided regarding gender-based violence risk assessments carried out in this context. Nor is it clear how despite such stated strict controls the government has authorised transfers to countries involved in the conflict in Yemen, a conflict with devastating humanitarian consequences.

Italy should comply fully with its obligations under CEDAW and the ATT by taking measures to prevent its arms transfers facilitating or exacerbating gender-based violence. In this regard, Italy should implement without delay CEDAW Committee’s recommendations that Italian “legislation regulating arms export control be harmonized with article 7 (4) of the Arms Trade Treaty and the Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP of the European Union” and that the Italian government “integrate a gender dimension into its strategic dialogues with countries purchasing Italian arms and that, before export licences are granted, comprehensive and transparent assessments be conducted of the impact that the misuse of small arms and light weapons has on women, including those living in conflict zones.”[1]

We will continue our advocacy efforts on this topic and monitor progress at national level with WILPF’s section in Italy to ensure that the Committee’s recommendations are duly implemented by the Italian government.

For more information on this issue, read The Impact of Italy’s Arms Transfers on Women – Italy’s Extraterritorial Obligations under CEDAW

For guidance to states on how to incorporate gender-based violence criteria into their risk assessment, see Preventing GBV – Executive Summary

[1] UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women: Italy, paragraph 20, 21 July 2017, CEDAW/C/ITA/CO/7, available at: http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fITA%2fCO%2f7&Lang=en 

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Melissa Torres


Prior to being elected Vice-President, Melissa Torres was the WILPF US International Board Member from 2015 to 2018. Melissa joined WILPF in 2011 when she was selected as a Delegate to the Commission on the Status of Women as part of the WILPF US’ Practicum in Advocacy Programme at the United Nations, which she later led. She holds a PhD in Social Work and is a professor and Global Health Scholar at Baylor College of Medicine and research lead at BCM Anti-Human Trafficking Program. Of Mexican descent and a native of the US/Mexico border, Melissa is mostly concerned with the protection of displaced Latinxs in the Americas. Her work includes training, research, and service provision with the American Red Cross, the National Human Trafficking Training and Technical Assistance Centre, and refugee resettlement programs in the U.S. Some of her goals as Vice-President are to highlight intersectionality and increase diversity by fostering inclusive spaces for mentorship and leadership. She also contributes to WILPF’s emerging work on the topic of displacement and migration.

Jamila Afghani


Jamila Afghani is the President of WILPF Afghanistan which she started in 2015. She is also an active member and founder of several organisations including the Noor Educational and Capacity Development Organisation (NECDO). Elected in 2018 as South Asia Regional Representative to WILPF’s International Board, WILPF benefits from Jamila’s work experience in education, migration, gender, including gender-based violence and democratic governance in post-conflict and transitional countries.

Sylvie Jacqueline Ndongmo


Sylvie Jacqueline NDONGMO is a human rights and peace leader with over 27 years experience including ten within WILPF. She has a multi-disciplinary background with a track record of multiple socio-economic development projects implemented to improve policies, practices and peace-oriented actions. Sylvie is the founder of WILPF Cameroon and was the Section’s president until 2022. She co-coordinated the African Working Group before her election as Africa Representative to WILPF’s International Board in 2018. A teacher by profession and an African Union Trainer in peace support operations, Sylvie has extensive experience advocating for the political and social rights of women in Africa and worldwide.

WILPF Afghanistan

In response to the takeover of Afghanistan by the Taliban and its targeted attacks on civil society members, WILPF Afghanistan issued several statements calling on the international community to stand in solidarity with Afghan people and ensure that their rights be upheld, including access to aid. The Section also published 100 Untold Stories of War and Peace, a compilation of true stories that highlight the effects of war and militarisation on the region. 

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WILPF Germany (+Young WILPF network), WILPF Spain and MENA Regional Representative

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WILPF uses feminist analysis to argue that militarisation is a counter-productive and ill-conceived response to establishing security in the world. The more society becomes militarised, the more violence and injustice are likely to grow locally and worldwide.

Sixteen states are believed to have supplied weapons to Afghanistan from 2001 to 2020 with the US supplying 74 % of weapons, followed by Russia. Much of this equipment was left behind by the US military and is being used to inflate Taliban’s arsenal. WILPF is calling for better oversight on arms movement, for compensating affected Afghan people and for an end to all militarised systems.

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Mobilising men and boys around feminist peace has been one way of deconstructing and redefining masculinities. WILPF shares a feminist analysis on the links between militarism, masculinities, peace and security. We explore opportunities for strengthening activists’ action to build equal partnerships among women and men for gender equality.

WILPF has been working on challenging the prevailing notion of masculinity based on men’s physical and social superiority to, and dominance of, women in Afghanistan. It recognizes that these notions are not representative of all Afghan men, contrary to the publicly prevailing notion.

Feminist peace​

In WILPF’s view, any process towards establishing peace that has not been partly designed by women remains deficient. Beyond bringing perspectives that encapsulate the views of half of the society and unlike the men only designed processes, women’s true and meaningful participation allows the situation to improve.

In Afghanistan, WILPF has been demanding that women occupy the front seats at the negotiating tables. The experience of the past 20 has shown that women’s presence produces more sustainable solutions when they are empowered and enabled to play a role.

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