Latest News

Decolonise And Demilitarise The Chagos Islands!

22 September 2016

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the establishment of a US military base at Diego Garcia, a small island in the Chagos Archipelago that is part of Mauritius but was excised by the United Kingdom during colonisation.

The Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) stands in solidarity with Mauritians who are demanding closure of the US military base, reunification of Mauritius, and repatriation of Chagossians—Mauritians from the Chagos islands—to their land.

B-1 accelerates for take off (background), during Operation Enduring Freedom. United States Air Force. Photo: SrA Rebeca M. Luquin.

The UK and US governments have imposed 50 years of militarism upon the people this small island in the Indian Ocean, who were forcibly removed from their homes. The Chagossians and other Mauritians from other parts of the country have led 50 years of resistance, demanding the decolonisation and reunification of Mauritius and resettlement of people that were forcibly removed by the UK government.

Many have also demanded a closure of the military base on Diego Garcia, recognising that from Japan to Djibouti, from Australia to Ecuador, military bases bring misery to local populations and perpetuate war and violence around the world. At the end of this year, the UK government’s 50 year lease of Diego Garcia to the United States is due to expire, but will automatically renew unless otherwise decided.

WILPF calls on the international community to urge the UK government to not renew its lease of Diego Garcia to the United States and to demand that the military base on Diego Garcia is closed forever. We are concerned with reports the Mauritian government, which planned to table a resolution at the UN General Assembly calling for a referral of the case of decolonisation and repatriation of the Chagos archipelago (including Diego Garcia) to the International Court of Justice, has been pressured to accept a delay in the consideration of this issue until June 2017.

An aerial port bow view of the aircraft carrier USS SARATOGA (CV-60) tied up at pier. This is the first time an aircraft carrier has visited the island.
An aerial port bow view of the aircraft carrier USS SARATOGA (CV-60) tied up at pier. Photo: Wikipedia.
History of the military base and forcible removal of the local population

Diego Garcia, an atoll that is part of the Chagos Archipelago in Mauritian territory, was settled by the French in the 1790s and transferred to UK rule after the Napoleonic Wars. The British excised the archipelago from Mauritius prior to its independence in 1965. The US government saw Diego Garcia’s location as desirable for a military base and in 1966 made an agreement with the UK government, secret from both countries’ parliaments, to remove the local population from the island. Between 1968 and 1973, the Chagossians were forcibly removed by the United Kingdom. Many were deported to Mauritius and Seychelles.

Diego Garcia is now a multibillion-dollar Navy and Air Force base and a central node in US military operations in the Middle East. It played a pivotal role in waging the Gulf War, the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the US-led war in Afghanistan, and the current bombing campaign against Daesh in Syria and Iraq. It was also a black site in the CIA’s rendition and torture programme. It has reportedly been used as a forward-operating site for B-52 nuclear weapon bombers and also nuclear submarines.

Resistance from the Chagos

The Chagos people have never stopped fighting for their land. Women from the Chagos have been in the forefront of the interlinked struggle for the decolonisation of the Chagos, for the right to return there, for reparations, and for closure of the base. Aurelie Talate helped lead her people in demanding the UK and US governments return them to their homeland.

The Muvman Liberasyon Fam, a national women’s organisation in Mauritius, has been a leader in this struggle, together with the LALIT campaign and the trade union movement in Mauritius. Two of its members were arrested during protests at the Port Louis docks in Mauritius in 1981, when Chagossian women organised street demonstrations to support eight other women on hunger strike. The demonstrations included hundreds of women with placards blocking the street opposite the British High Commission for three days and confrontations with riot police.

In 2000, after a lawsuit was brought before it, the British High Court ruled that the removal of the Chagossians was illegal, but the Law Lords in the House of Lords rejected this during appeal. A number of steps have since been by the UK government to maintain control over the Chagos islands, such as by offering Chagossians British passports. In 2010, the UK government announced the creation of a Marine Protected Area in the Chagos Archipelago, which WikiLeaks has revealed to be an intentional attempt to block resettlement on any of the islands, including Diego Garcia.

What’s happening now?

At the end of 2016, the original 50-year agreement between the UK and US governments expires. The lease will automatically extend by 20 years if neither side terminates it now—but the Mauritian people and government are trying to prevent this.

Last year, Mauritius won a tribunal case under the UN Convention of the Law of Sea, which made it clear that it is illegal for the UK to take decisions unilaterally on the Chagos islands without consulting Mauritius. The Prime Minister of Mauritius decided to take the case to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for an Advisory Opinion, and was trying to get support for this through a resolution at the UN General Assembly this year. However, the General Assembly’s agenda indicates that that there will be no consideration of this issue before June 2017.

It is not clear why Mauritius agreed to this postponement. With the lease for the base expected to automatically renew at the end of 2016, the date of June 2017 for consideration of this issue at the UN or the ICJ would appear to come after the fact of base renewal.

The Mauritian people support the demand for decolonisation of all of the Chagos islands and their reunification with the Republic of Mauritius. Many—particularly those in the women’s movement and the trade union movement—also demand the closure of the military base on Diego Garcia. The Mauritian government, however, does not necessarily support the closure of the military base—hoping instead to collect the rent from the United States itself.

In supporting the demands for decolonisation and reunification, WILPF urges the Maurtian government to consider the implications of maintaining a US military base on its soil. Foreign military bases, regardless of the nature of their operations, undermine human rights, increase geopolitical tensions, and facilitate sexual violence against local populations. This mode of militarism is damaging to local people, local economies, and have “helped lock us inside a permanently militarised society that has made all of us—everyone on this planet—less secure.”

The US base at Diego Garcia has proven to be an integral part of the US war machine, allowing it to project violence, death, and destruction throughout the Middle East in particular. Thus we urge all Mauritians to join the global movement of those opposed to war and militarism that call for a closure of foreign military bases around the world, including Diego Garcia.

WILPF_with_byline_short_positiveWhat can WILPFers do?

Please send messages of support to LALIT, the international campaign for decolonisation, reunification, repatriation, and the closure of Diego Garcia, at lalitmail@intent.mu

If you’re in the United States, please email President Obama, with a copy to LALIT, to say:

We call on you to withdraw the communiqué signed jointly with the UK threatening “lasting damage” to Mauritius-US relations if Mauritius goes to the International Court of Justice over its claim for decolonisation and reunification of the Chagos islands. We urge you to instead support Mauritian sovereignty, to support the right of return of Chagossians free from colonial chains, to pay them proper reparations, and to close down the military base, the source of all this suffering, and effect a clean-up. If the US administration acts in a principled way, and closes the base, there will be no need for the UK to continue its occupation of Chagos.

If you’re in the United Kingdom, please email Prime Minister May, with a copy to LALIT, to say:

We call on you to withdraw the communiqué signed jointly with the US threatening “lasting damage” to Mauritius-UK relations if Mauritius goes to the International Court of Justice over its claim for decolonisation and reunification of the Chagos islands. We urge you to instead support Mauritian sovereignty, to support the right of return of Chagossians free from colonial chains, to pay them proper reparations, and to help close down the US military base, the source of all this suffering, and help effect a clean-up. If the UK acts in a principled way like this, and decolonises the whole of Mauritius, there will be no need for the UK to continue its occupation of Chagos, nor to sub-rent Diego Garcia for the base. 

If you’re in any other country, please write to your government, with a copy to LALIT, to say:

We call on you to support Mauritius’ UN General Assembly resolution that the sovereignty dispute between Mauritius and the United Kingdom be considered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ). We also urge you to call for the US and UK to withdraw from their illegal occupation of Chagos, including Diego Garcia.

 

Share the post

Melissa Torres

VICE-PRESIDENT

Prior to being elected Vice-President, Melissa Torres was the WILPF US International Board Member from 2015 to 2018. Melissa joined WILPF in 2011 when she was selected as a Delegate to the Commission on the Status of Women as part of the WILPF US’ Practicum in Advocacy Programme at the United Nations, which she later led. She holds a PhD in Social Work and is a professor and Global Health Scholar at Baylor College of Medicine and research lead at BCM Anti-Human Trafficking Program. Of Mexican descent and a native of the US/Mexico border, Melissa is mostly concerned with the protection of displaced Latinxs in the Americas. Her work includes training, research, and service provision with the American Red Cross, the National Human Trafficking Training and Technical Assistance Centre, and refugee resettlement programs in the U.S. Some of her goals as Vice-President are to highlight intersectionality and increase diversity by fostering inclusive spaces for mentorship and leadership. She also contributes to WILPF’s emerging work on the topic of displacement and migration.

Jamila Afghani

VICE-PRESIDENT

Jamila Afghani is the President of WILPF Afghanistan which she started in 2015. She is also an active member and founder of several organisations including the Noor Educational and Capacity Development Organisation (NECDO). Elected in 2018 as South Asia Regional Representative to WILPF’s International Board, WILPF benefits from Jamila’s work experience in education, migration, gender, including gender-based violence and democratic governance in post-conflict and transitional countries.

Sylvie Jacqueline Ndongmo

PRESIDENT

Sylvie Jacqueline NDONGMO is a human rights and peace leader with over 27 years experience including ten within WILPF. She has a multi-disciplinary background with a track record of multiple socio-economic development projects implemented to improve policies, practices and peace-oriented actions. Sylvie is the founder of WILPF Cameroon and was the Section’s president until 2022. She co-coordinated the African Working Group before her election as Africa Representative to WILPF’s International Board in 2018. A teacher by profession and an African Union Trainer in peace support operations, Sylvie has extensive experience advocating for the political and social rights of women in Africa and worldwide.

WILPF Afghanistan

In response to the takeover of Afghanistan by the Taliban and its targeted attacks on civil society members, WILPF Afghanistan issued several statements calling on the international community to stand in solidarity with Afghan people and ensure that their rights be upheld, including access to aid. The Section also published 100 Untold Stories of War and Peace, a compilation of true stories that highlight the effects of war and militarisation on the region. 

IPB Congress Barcelona

WILPF Germany (+Young WILPF network), WILPF Spain and MENA Regional Representative

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Mauris facilisis luctus rhoncus. Praesent eget tellus sit amet enim consectetur condimentum et vel ante. Nulla facilisi. Suspendisse et nunc sem. Vivamus ullamcorper vestibulum neque, a interdum nisl accumsan ac. Cras ut condimentum turpis. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia curae; Curabitur efficitur gravida ipsum, quis ultricies erat iaculis pellentesque. Nulla congue iaculis feugiat. Suspendisse euismod congue ultricies. Sed blandit neque in libero ultricies aliquam. Donec euismod eget diam vitae vehicula. Fusce hendrerit purus leo. Aenean malesuada, ante eu aliquet mollis, diam erat suscipit eros, in.

Demilitarisation

WILPF uses feminist analysis to argue that militarisation is a counter-productive and ill-conceived response to establishing security in the world. The more society becomes militarised, the more violence and injustice are likely to grow locally and worldwide.

Sixteen states are believed to have supplied weapons to Afghanistan from 2001 to 2020 with the US supplying 74 % of weapons, followed by Russia. Much of this equipment was left behind by the US military and is being used to inflate Taliban’s arsenal. WILPF is calling for better oversight on arms movement, for compensating affected Afghan people and for an end to all militarised systems.

Militarised masculinity

Mobilising men and boys around feminist peace has been one way of deconstructing and redefining masculinities. WILPF shares a feminist analysis on the links between militarism, masculinities, peace and security. We explore opportunities for strengthening activists’ action to build equal partnerships among women and men for gender equality.

WILPF has been working on challenging the prevailing notion of masculinity based on men’s physical and social superiority to, and dominance of, women in Afghanistan. It recognizes that these notions are not representative of all Afghan men, contrary to the publicly prevailing notion.

Feminist peace​

In WILPF’s view, any process towards establishing peace that has not been partly designed by women remains deficient. Beyond bringing perspectives that encapsulate the views of half of the society and unlike the men only designed processes, women’s true and meaningful participation allows the situation to improve.

In Afghanistan, WILPF has been demanding that women occupy the front seats at the negotiating tables. The experience of the past 20 has shown that women’s presence produces more sustainable solutions when they are empowered and enabled to play a role.

Skip to content